Greenhouse Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

This page provides information on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and biological control (biocontrol) in greenhouses, including greenhouse pest identification and factsheets.  Biological control in greenhouses cannot be used effectively without a comprehensive understanding of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) which involves a diversity of control strategies often for multiple pests.


 

Biocontrols for aphids

Aphidius matricariae (parasitoid)
Aphid Parasite:  A small parasitic wasp that preys primarily upon the green peach aphid and as many as 40 other related species. This native North American parasite occurs naturally outdoors and frequently parasitizes aphids in green houses.
Aphidoletes aphidoma (midge larva)
Aphid Predator:  The larval stage of this predatory gnat-sized insect preys on all types of aphids, in indoor and outdoor settings. Larvae grow up to 1/8 inch long and can consume aphids much larger than themselves and may kill 4-65 aphids per day.
Hippodamia convergens (predator)
Lady beetle / Ladybug:  The most common of all beneficial insects, these voracious predators feed on aphids, adelgids, chinch bugs, asparagus beetle larvae, thrips, alfalfa weevils, bean thrips, grape root worms, Colorado potato beetle larvae, whitefly, and mites and many other soft-bodied insects and eggs.
Coleomegilla maculata (predator)
Lady beetle: Very common predator preys on mites, insect eggs and small larvae. Prey include pea, green peach, cabbage, and potato aphids and greenbug; eggs of European corn borer, cabbageworm, fall webworm, and corn earworm; asparagus beetle, Mexican bean beetle, and Colorado potato beetle eggs and larvae.
Orius insidiosus (predator)
Minute pirate bug:  These tiny predators are effective against thrips, mites, aphids, and small caterpillars.
Chrsoperla sp. (predator)
Green lacewing: These delicate predators consume aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, leafhopper nymphs, caterpillar eggs, scales, thrips, and whiteflies. Sometimes called aphid lions.

Biocontrols for mealybugs

Anagyrus pseudococci (parasitoid)
Solitary parasitoid wasp:  Effective against many species of mealybugs including citrus mealybug, grape mealybug, vine mealybug and cypress mealybug. Commonly part of vineyard biocontrols.
Leptomastix dactylopii (parasitoid)
Citrus mealybug parasite:  A tiny parasitic wasp feeds and chews on citrus mealybug both indoors and outdoors. Often used in conjunction with mealybug destroyer.
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (predator)
Mealybug destroyer: Both the larval and adult stages of this predator lady beetle attack all stages of mealybugs. If food is scarce they will eat soft scales and aphids. 
Chrsoperla sp. (predator)
Green lacewing: These delicate predators consume aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, leafhopper nymphs, caterpillar eggs, scales, thrips, and whiteflies. Sometimes called aphid lions.

Biocontrols for soft scales

Metaphycus helvolus (parasitoid)
Metaphycus alberti (parasitoid)
Parasitoid wasp natural enemy of soft brown scale. 
Lindorus lophanthae also called Rhobius (predator)
Lady beetle: Eats mealybug, other small insects. 

Biocontrols for armored scales

Aphytis melinus (parasitoid)
Parasite:  This predator provides excellent control of California red scale and other armored scale pests.
Chilocorus kuwanae (predator)
Lady beetle: Small black lady beetle preys on euonymus scale and other armored scales in citrus groves, landscape shrubs and landscapes.

Biocontrols for whiteflies

Encarsia formosa (parasitoid)
Parasitic wasp:  Used for whitefly control in greenhouses on tomatoes, strawberries and in floricultural and nursery plants.
Eretmocerus californicus (parasitoid)
Parasitic wasp:  Tiny wasp controls sweet potato whitefly and silverlead whitefly in greenhouse and outdoor crops. 
Delphastus pusilus  (predator)
Lady beetle:  Controls whitefleis because of its high prey consumption, long adult survival and high reproduction rates in ornamental and agricultural crops.
Chrsoperla sp. (predator)
Green lacewing: These delicate predators consume aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, leafhopper nymphs, caterpillar eggs, scales, thrips, and whiteflies. Sometimes called aphid lions.

Biocontrols for thrips

Ambleseius cucumeris (predator)
Mites.  Tan colored mites found on the underside of leaves effective at preventing thrips build-up when applied early in growing season or at first sign of thrips.
Hpoaspis miles (parasitoid)
Mite that lives in top layer of soil and natural predator of fungus gnat pupae and snail parasite.  Used by gardeners and snail breeders for pest control.
Orius insidiosus (predator)
Minute pirate bug:  These tiny predators are effective against thrips, mites, aphids, and small caterpillars.
Chrsoperla sp. (predator)
Green lacewing: These delicate predators consume aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, leafhopper nymphs, caterpillar eggs, scales, thrips, and whiteflies. Sometimes called aphid lions.

Biocontrols for fungus gnats

Parasitic nematodes 
Nematodes are thread-like roundworms that live in a wide range of environments including soil and fresh and salt water. Some species feed on fungi, bacteria, protozoans and plants.
Hpoaspis miles (parasitoid)
Predatory Mite:  Lives in top layer of soil and natural predator of fungus gnat pupae and snail parasite.  Used by gardeners and snail breeders for pest control.

Biocontrols for spider mites

Phtoseiulus persimilis (predator)
Predatory mite:  Controls spider mites on vegetables and ornamentals in greenhouses, interior plantscapes and crops where twospotted spider mites are a problem.
Neoseiulus californicus (predator)
Predatory mites:  Mite predator feeds on pollen and other small arthropods and also attacks tarsonemid mites.
Orius insidiosus (predator)
Minute pirate bug:  These tiny predators are effective against thrips, mites, aphids, and small caterpillars.
Chrsoperla sp. (predator)
Green lacewing: These delicate predators consume aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, leafhopper nymphs, caterpillar eggs, scales, thrips, and whiteflies. Sometimes called aphid lions.


 

Aphids:  Introduction

chrysanthemum aphid

Chrysanthemum Aphid:  Dark mahogany brown; found exclusively on chrysanthemum.

 

Green peach aphid

Green Peach Aphid:  Cornicles long, slender, and pale in color but sometimes dark at the tip.

 

melon or cotton aphid

Melon or Cotton Aphid:  Cornicles shorter and uniformly dark.

 

 

Mealybugs:  Introduction

citrus mealybug

Citrus Mealybug: The female is wingless and appears to have been rolled in flour (hence the name).

 

 

longtailed mealybug

Longtailed Mealybug: Female have 17 pairs of waxy filaments around the periphery.

 

Mexican Mealybug

Mexican Mealybug: The female adult is long, oval, grayish and covered with a thin waxy secretion.

 

Root Mealybug

Root Mealybug: The adult female ground mealybug is white

 

Scale insects: Introduction

SCALE

Boisduval Scale: Cover of the adult female is circular or oval, thin, flat, white to light yellow, semitransparent.

 

 

fern scale

Fern Scale: Female armor is oystershell or pear shaped, flat, light brown with the crawler cast skin a paler brown.

 

 

Hemispherical Scale

Hemispherical Scale: Depending on the host plant, the adult scale may vary in size.

 

 

brown soft scale

Brown Soft Scale: Adult females are pale yellowish green to yellowish brown, often mottled with brown spots.

 

 

Tessellated Scale

Tessellated Scale: Living adult females are flattened, reddish brown to dark brown.

 

Whiteflies:  Introduction

 

whiteflies

Key to Whiteflies: Key to the most common of flowers and foliage plants.

 

 

silverleaf whiteflies

Silverleaf Whitefly: The silverleaf is slightly smaller and slightly yellower than most other whitefly pests of flowers.

 

 

sweet potato

Sweetpotato Whitefly: Adults are small with a pale yellow body and two pairs of white wings.

 

 

bandedwinged

Bandedwinged Whitefly: Mature adults have zig-zag bands across the front pair of wings.

 

 

greenhouse whitefly

Greenhouse Whitefly: The adult is a white insect that resembles a tiny moth.

 

 

citrus whitefly

Citrus Whitefly: The adult is a tiny, moth-like, four-winged, mealy-white insect.

 

 

azalea whitefly

Azalea Whitefly: The adult is light yellow with the antennae and legs slightly lighter in color.

 

Thrips:  Introduction

 

melon thrip photo

Key to Thrips: Key to eleven species of thrips found in greenhouses.

 

 

cuban laurel

Cuban Laurel Thrips: Adults are large and dark yellowish brown to black.

 

 

flower thrips photo

Flower Thrips: Flower thrips and Florida flower thrips are very similar and can be separated only by microscopic examination.

 

 

GLADIOLUS THRIP

Western Flower Thrips: The female is larger than the male. The female varies from yellow to dark brown, and has a more rounded abdomen.

 

 

tobacco thrip photo

Tobacco Thrips: The female is dark brown or black and slender.

 

 

greenhouse thrip photo

Greenhouse Thrips: The head and central area of the body have a distinct network of lines.

 

 

banded greenhouse thrip

Banded Greenhouse Thrips: Females are primarily yellow at first but gradually darken to brown or black.

 

 

composite thrip photo

Composite Thrips: Females are yellowish brown to dark brown, and the head is small with black eyes and red ocelli.

 

 

melon thrip photo

Melon Thrips: Melon thrips have a clear yellow body with thick, blackish body setae. Antennal colors variable.

 

 

GLADIOLUS THRIP

Gladiolus Thrips: They emerge milky-white, but soon turn dark brown, except for the apical portions of the legs which are lighter.

 

 

Onion thrip

Onion Thrips: Adult females are yellow, with brownish blotches on the thorax and the median portion of abdomen.

 

echinothrip

Echinothrips americanus: The adult female is about 1.6 mm long and the male about 1.3 mm long.

 

Flies:  Introduction

 

fly photo

Key to most common fly pests found on flowers and foliage plants and key to most common maggots found on flowers and foliage plants.

 

 

fungus gnat photo

Fungus Gnats: The flies are grayish-back, slender with comparatively long legs and antennae.

 

 

shore flies

Shore Flies: Black fly in genus Scatella with reddish eyes and gray wings with clear spots and resemble eye gnats, fruit flies, or vinegar flies in general shape.

 

Mites: Introduction

 

Broad mites

Broad Mite: Broad mites are almost microscopic (less than 0.2 millimeter long).

 

 

Cyclamen mites

Cyclamen Mite: These mites are tiny animals, less than 0.3 millimeter long.

 

 

twospotted spider

Twospotted Spider Mite: The eight-legged adult can be pale green, greenish amber, or yellowish.