ID Six Families of Native Bees

On this page are additional materials for the course located at campus extension called Mitigating pollinator decline with IPM. Also, this page contains materials relevant to a Citizen's Science-like project on pollinators. The images on this page are from BugGuide, Iowa State University and the text is from Heather Holm's book. Healther Holm's book on native plants and pollinators is available to purchase at http://www.pollinatorsnativeplants.com/purchase.html

Conserving beneficial insects is everyone's business, from landscapers, to consumers, to state and federal land managers. Listed here are families in the Anthopila (Apoidea). However, there are many species of social and solitary wasps, parasitic wasps, lady beetles, lacewings, dragon flies, mosquitoes, truebugs, and many others that visit flowers for pollen and nectar.

The conservation of beneficial insects, that includes bees, insect predators, parasitic wasps, and butterflies, is an essential part of Integrated Pest management (IPM) programs. IPM promotes multiple tactics to manage pests and to suppress the population size below levels that will damage the plant. IPM tactics include cultural control, sanitation, biological control, using insecticides friendly to beneficial insects, and finally the use of conventional insecticides. IPM recognizes that the few remaining pest insects will support beneficial predators and parasitic wasps. When scouting plants for pest insects, check for populations of both pest and beneficial insects, such as lady beetles and bees. If beneficial insects are present, wait to spray insecticides to see if the beneficial insects control the pest insects or use specific insecticides that only target the pest insect. Do not apply insecticides while plants are in full bloom. If possible avoid beneficial insects by spraying leaves in the evening when bees and lady beetles are not foraging.

There are few systemic insecticides, while there are many systemic herbicides and fungicides.  Systemic, neonicotinoid insecticides are the most widely used insecticides in the world, due to their low mammalian toxicity and the ability of the insecticide to move systemically from soil into the entire plant, including pollen and nectar. Application methods include seed treatments, foliar sprays, soil and trunk drenches, and trunk-injections. Flowers that open after being sprayed with contact insecticides do not contain insecticide residue, while toxicity to pests lasts for 1-3 weeks. However, flowers that open after systemic insecticides are sprayed can contain the insecticide residue for many months in both the leaves and pollen and nectar.

There are six neonicotinoid active ingredients, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin, of which acetamiprid and thiacloprid are the least toxic to bees. There is another systemic insecticide, fipronil that is used around structures that is also toxic to bees. You will find these active ingredients listed on the insecticide label in small print. The neonicotinoid class of insecticides is highly toxic to bees and kills bees at around 180 ppb in flower nectar or pollen. However, sublethal doses of neonicotinoid insecticide starting around 10 ppb, causes bees to lose navigation and foraging skills. The longevity and amount of the neonicotinoid in the pollen and nectar will depend on application method, concentration applied, and binding capacity of the soil. More research is needed to determine residual levels from different applications.

The use of neonicotinoid insecticides as trunk injections and soil drenches for ash trees is important to slow the spread of the exotic, invasive Emerald Ash Borer and other invasive pests. As bees do not collect ash pollen in quantities, the risk to bee pollinators is low.  In contrast, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides on flowering garden plants, shrubs and trees, including linden and basswood trees can kill bees and beneficial insects that utilize the flowers for pollen and nectar. It is wise to avoid using systemic neonicotinoid insecticides on flowering plants that bees visit regularly. Instead use spot treatments of contact insecticides.

ID native bees, scroll down to see pictures and information on 6 families of native bees.

1. Family Colletidae

Common name: Cellophane (Polyester) bees, Colletes spp.

Nest: Ground, often near water, dense aggregations

Nest soil type: Sand, loamy soil, loam, clay loam

Nest lining: Dufour's gland secretion of cellophane, brushed on with glossa

Active: Late spring-summer

Size: Small – medium, 7 – 15mm (0.3 – 0.6 in)

Tongue length: Short, 1 – 3 mm (0.4 – 0.12 in ), two lobed

Color: Black and white banding on abdomen

Appearance: Hairy head and thorax, Heart – shaped face (strongly converging eves), bi-lobed tongue

Pollen collection: Scopae, upper hind legs and thorax

Flight distance:~ 500ft, 150 m                                                     

Adult bee         Carrying pollen         Ground nest           
colletes_inaequalis_adult.jpg colletes_inaequalis_pollen.jpg colletes_nest.jpg
Copyright © 2009 Steve Scott,
http://bugguide.net/node/view/352502, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Colletes spp., Desert Bee, Coachella Valley Preserve, Riverside County, California, USA, November 1, 2009
Copyright © 2013 Aaron Schusteff, http://bugguide.net/node/view/735998, Colletes spp., Montara, San Mateo County, California, USA, June 24, 2012 Copyright © 2009 Steve Scott,
http://bugguide.net/node/view/352502, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Colletes spp., Desert Bee, Coachella Valley Preserve, Riverside County, California, USA, November 1, 2009

2. Family Colletidae

Common name:  Yellow-faced bee, Hylaeus spp.

Nest: Preexisting cavities: stems or twigs

Nest lining: Cellophane-like material, brushed on with glossa

Active: Late spring – late summer

Size: Small, 5 – 7 mm (0.2 – 0.3 in.)

Tongue length: Short, 1 – 2 mm (0.04 – 0.07 inch)

Color: Black with yellow markings

Appearance: Hairless, bi-lobed tongue

Pollen collection: Crop, No pollen–collecting scopae

Adult bee            Twig nest
hylaeus_adult.jpg hylaeus_nest_trap_h_annulatus.jpg
Copyright © 2014 Kurt Hennige
http://bugguide.net/node/view/977657, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Hylaeus annulatus, Yellow-Faced bee, Bath, Lennox and Addington, Ontario, Canada, July 29, 2014
Copyright © 2011 George Cordiner
http://bugguide.net/node/view/525485 BugGuide, Iowa State University, Hylaeus annulatus, Yellow-Faced bee, Bowmanville, Durham, Ontario, Canada, May 31, 2011

3. Family Adrenidae

Common Name: Mining bees, Andrena spp.

Nest: Ground (sometimes lawns)

Nest soil type: Sand, sandy loam, silt loam

Active Spring: - early fall

Size: Small - medium 7 -15 mm (0.3 - 0.6 in.)

Tongue length: Short, 2 - 4 mm (0.7 - 0.15 in.)

Color: Black

Appearance: Moderately hairy, white to orange hairs, often with bands of hair on abdomen Facial depressions (foveae) between the compound eyes

Pollen collection: Scopae upper hind legs

Flight distance: ~ 500 yards, 450 m

Adult bee Carrying pollen Ground nest
  andrena_pollen.jpg andrena_nest.jpg

 

Copyright © 2011 iNaturalist, http://bugguide.net/node/view/545690 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Andrena spp., Mining bees, McClellan Ranch, Cupertino, Santa Clara County, California, USA,
March 22, 2011

Copyright © 2010 Libby & Rick Avis, http://bugguide.net/node/view/480126 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Andrena spp., Mining bees, Port Alberni, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, April 21, 2009

4. Family Adrenidae

Common name: Mining bees, Calliopsis spp.

Nest: Ground

Nest lining: Oil secreted from Dufour’s gland used to waterproof brood cell and cover bee bread

Active: Late spring - early fall

Size: Small - medium 7- 9 mm (0.3 - 0.35 in.)

Color Black, often with yellow or cream markings on the face, legs and thorax

Appearance: Moderately hairy

Pollen collection: Scopae hind legs

Adult bee Carrying pollen
calliopsis_adult_c_andreniformis.jpg calliopsis_pollen_c_fracta.jpg

Copyright © 2015 Paul A Scharf, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1145329, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Mining bees, Calliopsis andreniformis, Yellow Mountain State Natural Area, 4100', Avery County, North Carolina, USA, June 19, 2015

Copyright © 2009 Hartmut Wisch, http://bugguide.net/node/view/353306, BugGuide, Iowa State University,Mt. Williamson Trailhead, off Angeles Crest Hwy.; elev. 2039m, San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles County, California, USA

5. Family Halictidae

Common name: Sweat bees Halicitus spp.

Nest: Ground

Nest Soil Type: Loamy sand, sandy loam

Nest lining: Wax-like substance

Active: Summer

Size: Small - medium, 2 - 6 mm (0.08 - 0.2 in.)

Color: Dark gray, black

Appearance: Pale band hair on outer edge of abdominal segments

Adult bee Carrying pollen Ground nest
halicirus.jpg halictus_pollen_h_ligatus.jpg halictus_nest_h_rubicundus.jpg

Copyright © 2015 Sarah Christopherson, http://bugguide.net/node/view/104122 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae, Sweat bees Halicitus spp., Prince George's County, Maryland, USA,
September 3, 2014

Copyright © 2010 Molly Jacobson http://bugguide.net/node/view/438865,  BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae, Sweat bees Halicitus spp. Merrimack, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, US, July 25, 2010

Copyright © 2014 J. Gibbs, http://bugguide.net/node/view/909161, BugGuide, Iowa State University,Family Halictidae, Sweat bees Halicitus spp., East Lansing, Ingham County, Michigan, USA,April 13, 2014

6. Family Halictidae

Common name: Sweat bees Lasioglossum spp.

Nest: Ground

Nest soil type: Silt loam

Nest lining: Wax-like substance

Active: Early spring - summer

Size: Small - medium 3 - 10 mm (0.1 - 0.4 in.)

Tongue length:  Short - medium, 2 -6 mm (0.08 - 0.2 in.)

Color Dull gray, black, metallic

Appearance: Often with pale band hair along the base of abdominal segments or uniformly fuzzy (subgenus Dialictus)

Pollen collection: Scopae hind legs

Flight Distance: 200 yards, 180 m

 

Adult Carrying pollen
lasioglossum_adult.jpg lagioglussum_pollen.jpg

Copyright © 2008 Gary McDonald, http://bugguide.net/node/view/194595,  BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae, Sweat bees Lasioglossum spp., Aromas, San Benito County, California, USA, May 1, 2008

 

Copyright © 2014 Kurt Hennige, http://bugguide.net/node/view/978603, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae, Sweat bees Lasioglossum spp. Bath, Lennox and Addington, Ontario, Canada, July 30, 2014

7. Family Halictidae

Common name: Green sweat bees, Agapostemon spp.

Nest: Ground

Nest Soil Type: Sandy loam

Active: Late spring - fall

Size: Small - medium 7 - 15 mm (0.3 - 0.6 in.)

Tongue length: Short, 2 - 6 mm (0.08 - 0.2 in.)

Color:  Bright green, blue some species with black and white (yellow) abdomen

Pollen collection: Scopae hind legs

Adult bee Carrying pollen Ground nest
agapostemon_adult.jpg agapostemon_pollen.jpg agapostemon_nest.jpg

Copyright © 2008 Peter Bryant ,http://bugguide.net/node/view/235260 BugGuide, Iowa State University,Family Halictidae, Green sweat bees, Agapostemon spp., Laguna Beach, Orange County, California, USA, August 27, 2006

Copyright © 2013 Betsy Betros ,http://bugguide.net/node/view/876679 BugGuide, Iowa State University,Family Halictidae, Green sweat bees, Agapostemon spp., Kauffman Gardens, Kansas City, Jackson County, Missouri, USA, September 21, 2013

Copyright © 2010 Diane Wilson,http://bugguide.net/node/view/412760 , BugGuide, Iowa State University,Family Halictidae, Green sweat bees, Agapostemon spp., Denver, Denver County, Colorado, USA

 

8. Family Halictidae

Common name: Cuckoo bees, Sphecodes spp.

Nest: Cleptoparasite of sweat bees

Active: Late spring  -  summer

Size: Medium 5 - 15 mm (0.2 - 0.6 in.)

Tongue length: Short, 2 - 3 mm (0.2 - 0.1 in.)

Color: Black, dark red abdomen (female)

Appearance: Sparsely haired, coarsely pitted

Pollen collection: None

Adult bee  
spechodes_adult.jpg  

Copyright © 2007 Ron Hemberger,http://bugguide.net/node/view/101153 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae, Sphecodes spp., Fullerton Arboretum, Fullerton, Orange County, California, USA, April 1, 2007

 

9. Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe

Common name: Sweat bees, Augochlora spp.

Nest location: Rotting wood, preexisting cavities

Active: Summer

Size: Small, 5 - 10 mm (0.2 - 0.4 in)

Tongue length: Short, 2 -3 mm (0.08 - 0.1 in)

Color: Bright green or blue-green metallic or brassy

Appearance: Very sparsely haired

Pollen collection: Scopae hind legs

Flight distance: 490 feet, 150 m
 

Adult bee Carrying pollen Wood Wood
augochlora_pura.jpg augochlora_nest.jpg augochlorini_nest.jpg

Copyright © 2014 Kim Phillips,,http://bugguide.net/node/view/898782 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe, Sweat bees, Augochlora pura, Grand Rapis, Kent County, Michigan, July 4, 2013

Copyright © 2013 Heather Holm, http://bugguide.net/node/view/790751 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe, Sweat bees,  Augochlora pura, Minneronka, Hennepin County, Minnesota,USA,  June 19, 2013

 

Copyright © 2007 Beatriz Moisset,http://bugguide.net/node/view/428546, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe, Sweat bees, Augochlora pura, Howell, Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA, July 18, 2010

Copyright © 2007 Beatriz Moisset, http://bugguide.net/node/view/129557 , BugGuide, Iowa State University,Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe, Sweat bees, Augochlora pura., Briar Bush Nature Center, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, USA, July 22, 2007

 

10. Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe

Common name: Sweat bees, Augochlorella spp.

Nest: Rotting wood, preexisting cavities

Active: Summer

Size: Medium, 4.5 - 8 mm (0.18 - 0.3 in.)

Tongue length: 2 - 3 mm (0.08 -0.1 in.)

Color: Golden-green with coppery or red sheen

Appearance: Sparsely haired

Pollen collection: Scopae back legs

Adult bee Carrying pollen  
augochlorini_adult_augochlorella_aurata.jpg augochlorini_pollen.jpg  

Copyright © 2014 Richard Migneault, http://bugguide.net/node/view/882823, BugGuide, Iowa State University,Sweat Bee, Augochlorella aurat, Edmundston, Madawaska County, New Brunswick, Canada,June 6, 2013

Copyright © 2015 Mike Deep, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1066395 , BugGuide, Iowa State University,Family Halictidae Augoclorini tribe, Sweat bees, Augochlorella spp., Lake Rogers County Park, Hillsborough County, Florida, USA, May 12, 2015

 

11. Family Megachilidae

Common name: Mason bees, Osmia spp.

Nest: Preexisting cavities: wood, stems, rock crevices, snail shells, old wasp nests

Nest Divisions: Mud, leaves, sand, gravel, and woodchips

Active: Spring – early summer

Size: Small - medium, 6 - 11 mm (0.2- 0.4 in.)

Tongue length: Medium - long 7 - 9 mm (0.3 - 0.4 in.)

Color: Blue, green, metallic, dull appearing black

Appearance:  Moderately hairy, bulky, large head with mandibles

Life history: Are called mason bee because they collect mud to line their burrows in stems, old nests, wood, or rocks

Pollen collection: Abdominal scopae

Flight distance: ~ 300 feet, 91 m

Adult bee Gathering mud Carrying pollen
megachilidae_adult_osmia_lignaria.jpg megachilidae_mud_osmia_lignaria.jpg megachilidae_pollen_osmia.jpg

Copyright © 2009 Sam Houston,http://bugguide.net/node/view/259177 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Mason bees, Osmia spp., Sand Springs, Osage County, Oklahoma, USA,March 17, 2009

Copyright © 2010 Jonathan Wright,http://bugguide.net/node/view/398226 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Mason bees, Osmia spp., Cow Canyon, Mt. Baldy Village, Los Angeles County, California, USA, May 16, 2010


 

Copyright © 2011 Diane Wilson,http://bugguide.net/node/view/539249 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Mason bees, Osmia spp., Yeoman Park Campground, White River National Forest, Eagle County, Colorado, USA, July 1, 2011

12. Family Megachilidae

Common name: Leafcutter bees, Megachile spp.

Nest: Preexisting cavities: wood, stems ground

Nest divisions: Leaves, petals, resin, and mud

Active: Early - late summer

Size: Medium - large 7 -10 mm (0.2 - 0.4 in.)

Tongue length: Medium- long, 9 - 12mm (0.35 - 0.5 in.)

Color: Dark gray, black

Appearance: Female: Pale hair bands (often), large mandibles, broad hear, flattened or upturned abdomen, tapered

Male: Long hairs on forelegs

Pollen collection: Abdominal scopae

Flight distance: 500 yards, 450 m

Life history: Are called leaf cutter bees as they line their nest with leaves and flowers

Adult bee Carrying pollen Nest
megachile_adult.jpg megachile_pollen.jpg megachile_nest.jpg

Copyright © 2010 Carol Davis, http://bugguide.net/node/view/451586 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Leafcutter bees, Megachile spp., Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah, USA,September 5, 2010

Copyright © 2005 Steve Scott,http://bugguide.net/node/view/36177 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Leafcutter bees, Megachile spp., Fairfield, Illinois, USA, Wayne County, Illinois, USA, September 20, 2005

Copyright © 2010 George Cordiner,http://bugguide.net/node/view/419514 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Leafcutter bees, Megachile spp., Bowmanville, Durham, Ontario, Canada, June 29, 2010

13. Family Megachilidae

Common name: Small resin bees, Heriades spp.

Nest: Preexisting cavities: wood, stems

Nest Divisions: Resin, sealed with sand, wood fibers, plant fragments

Active: Late spring - summer

Size: Small, 5 - 7 mm (0.15 - 0.28 in.)

Tongue length: Short

Color: Black, pale abdominal bands

Appearance: Concave abdomen, pitted surface, short hair

Pollen collection: Abdominal scopae

Adult bee Carying pollen Nest
heriades_adult.jpg   heriades_nest_block.jpg

Copyright © 2008 Kurt Schaefer,http://bugguide.net/node/view/185936 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Small resin bees, Heriades spp., Texhoma, Texas County, Oklahoma, USA, May 28, 2008

 

Copyright © 2014 Paul Heiple,http://bugguide.net/node/view/890484 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Small resin bees, Heriades spp., Portola Valley , San Mateo County, California, USA, July 1, 2013

14. Family Megachilidae

Common name: Mason bees Hoplitis spp.

Nest: Preexisting cavities: pithy stems, wood, old nests in soil or mud nests

Nest divisions: Chewed leaves, pebbles sand, clay, wood fiber

Active: Spring - summer

Size: Small to medium 5 - 15 mm (0. - 0.6 in.)

Color: Black or metallic (western species)

Appearance: Slender, robust, hairy face

Pollen collection: Abdominal scopae

Adult bee    
hoplitis.jpg    

Copyright © 2010 Dave Beaudette, http://bugguide.net/node/view/390304 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Mason bees Hoplitis spp., Fort Huachuca, Cochise County, Arizona, USA, April 27, 2010

   

15. Family Megachilidae

Common name: Cuckoo bees, Coelioxys spp.

Nest: Cleptoparasite of leafcutter bees, lays eggs in other bees' nests.

Active: Early summer – late fall

Size:  Medium 12 mm (0.5 in.)

Tongue length: Short, 4 mm (0.15 in.)

Color: Dark gray, black

Appearance: Hair on eyes Female: narrow, tapered abdomen Male: short spines, last abdominal segment

Pollen collection: None, no nest provisioned

 

Ault bee    
     

 

   

16. Family Megachilidae

Common name: Carder bees, Anthidium spp.

Nest: Preexisting cavities, soil, wood, stems

Nest Divisions: Plant hairs and trichomes, resin

Nest Closure: Wood fibers

Active: Late spring - summer

Size: Small - medium, 7 - 15 mm (03 - 0.8 in.)

Tongue Length: Short, 4 mm (0.15 in.)

Color: Dark gray, black with yellow/white bands

Pollen collection: Abdominal scopae

Adult bee Carrying pollen Nest
anthidium_adult.jpg anthidium_pollen_anthidium_manicatum.jpg anthidium_nest_anthidium_manicatum.jpg

Copyright © 2014 t. stone http://bugguide.net/node/view/914957  , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Carder bees, Anthidium spp., Superior, Pinal County, Arizona, USA,
April 30, 2014

Copyright © 2015 Rich Schilk,http://bugguide.net/node/view/1124487 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Carder bees, Anthidium spp., Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, June 30, 2015

Copyright © 2009 Don Patterson,http://bugguide.net/node/view/336847 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Megachilidae, Carder bees, Anthidium spp., Stratford, Fairfield County, Connecticut, USA, September 23, 2009

17. Family Apidae

Common name: Bumble bees Bombus spp.

Nest: Colony (eusocial)

Nest Location: Rodent holes, leaf piles, ground

Nest Materials: Wax (nectar pots) leaves (insulation)

Active: Spring - late fall

Size: Medium - large 10 - 23 mm (0.4 - 0.9 in.)

Tongue Length: Medium – long, 4 - 16 mm (0.15 - 0.6 in.)

Color Black, yellow, white or orange hair, black body

Appearance: Stout, furry, robust, completely hairy

Pollen collection: Pollen baskets on hind legs (corbiculae)

Flight distance: ~ 1 mile, 1.6 km

Adult bee Carrying pollen Nest
bombus.jpg bombus_pollen_bombus_occidentalis.jpg bombus_nest.jpg

Copyright © 2015 tom murray,http://bugguide.net/node/view/1113022 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Bumble bees Bombus spp., Middlebury, Addison County, Vermont, USA, July 29, 2015


 

Copyright © 2013 Lynn Monroe,http://bugguide.net/node/view/747276 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Bumble bees Bombus spp., 6 miles NW Lyons, Boulder County, Colorado, USA, August 21, 2006


 

Copyright © 2014 Iris,http://bugguide.net/node/view/913565 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Bumble bees Bombus spp., Surrey, GVRD, British Columbia, Canada, April 26, 2014


 

18. Family Apidae

Common name: Digger bees, Anthophora spp.

Nest: Ground

Nest Soil Type: Loam, sandy clay loam

Nest Lining: Oil

Active: Spring - summer

Size: Medium - large, 9 - 15 mm (0.35 - 0.6 in.)

Tongue Length: Medium - long, 8 - 21 mm (0.3 - 0.8 in)

Color: Black, pale bands, often yellow markings on face, especially males

Appearance: Hairy, robust

Pollen Collection: Long scopae hind legs

Adult bee Carrying pollen Nest
anthophora_adult.jpg anthophora_pollen_a_californica.jpg anthophora_nest_a_occidentalis.jpg

Copyright © 2009 Diane Wilson, http://bugguide.net/node/view/328788 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Digger bees, Anthophora spp., Arvada, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA,
September 1, 2009

Copyright © 2012 Hartmut Wisch,http://bugguide.net/node/view/639900 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Digger bees, Anthophora spp., Residence near Rose Bowl, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, California, USA, May 10, 2012

Copyright © 2013 Loren & Babs Padelford,http://bugguide.net/node/view/802094 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Digger bees, Anthophora spp., Hitchcock Nature Area, Crescent, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, USA, July 5, 2013

19. Family Apidae

Common name: Cuckoo Bees, Namada spp.

Nest: Cleptoparasite of ground-nesting bees, lays eggs in other bees' nests.

Active: Early spring -summer

Size: Small -medium, 2 -15 mm (0.1 - 0.6 in

Tongue Length: Medium, 4 - 5 mm (0.15 -  0.2 in )

Color: Black, red, yellow (white) markings

Appearance: Sparsely hairy, thick antennae, wasp-like

Pollen Collection: None

Adult bee    
nomada_adult.jpg    

Copyright © 2015 Susan Hare, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1145088 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Cuckoo Bees, Namada spp., San Jose, Santa Clara County, California, USA,September 12, 2015

 

   

20. Family Apidae

Common name: Cuckoo Bees, Treiepeolus spp.

Nest: Cleptoparasite of digger bees and  Andredids, parassite, lays eggs in other bees' nests.

Active: Summer

Size: Medium, 3 - 15 mm (0.1 -  0.2 in)

Tongue Length: Medium, 4 - 5 mm (0.1 – 0.2 in)

Color  Black with yellow or white markings

Appearance: Very short hair, appearing hairless

Pollen Collection: None

Adult bee    
triepeolus_adult.jpg    

Copyright © 2015 Salvador Vitanza, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1103267 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Cuckoo Bees, Treiepeolus spp., El Paso, El Paso County, Texas, USA, July 16, 2015

   

21. Family Apidae

Common name: Small Carpenter Bees, Ceratina spp.

Nest: Pithy stems, wood

Vertical or angled nest orientation

Nest Divisions: Pith and saliva

Active: Early spring - summer

Size: Small - medium, 3 - 15 mm (0.1 - 0.6 in)

Tongue Length: Medium, 5 - 9 mm (0.2 - 0.35 in)

Color: Blue, black, green, metallic

Appearance: Cylindrical abdomen, sparsely haired, shiny, often white (or yellow) patch on face

Pollen Collection: Scopae hind legs

Flight Distance ~ 200 yd, 180 m

Adult bee Wood nest  
ceratina_adult.jpg ceratina_nest.jpg  

Copyright © 2015 H. Go, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1077027 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Small Carpenter Bees, Ceratina spp., Clifton, Passaic County, New Jersey, USA, May 31, 2015

 

Copyright © 2012 Pam Phillips, http://bugguide.net/node/view/682050 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Small Carpenter Bees, Ceratina spp., Watertown, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA, July 30, 2012

 

22. Family Apidae

Common name: Long-horned Bees, Melissodes spp.

Nest: Ground

Nest Lining: Wax-like substance

Active: Mid-summer- fall

Size: Small – medium, 7 - 18 mm (0.3 - 0.7 in)

Tongue Length: Medium - long

Appearance: Robust and hairy, often bands on abdomen in the middle of the abdominal segments Males: long antennae

Pollen Collection: long scopae hind legs

Adult bee Carrying pollen  
melissodes_adult.jpg melissodes_pollen_m_dentiventris.jpg  

Copyright © 2014 H. Go, http://bugguide.net/node/view/946764 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Long-horned Bees, Melissodes spp., Clifton, Passaic County, New Jersey, USA, June 24, 2014

Copyright © 2015 Giff Beaton, http://bugguide.net/node/view/1149847 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Long-horned Bees, Melissodes spp., Chattahoochee Nature Center, Fulton County, Georgia, USA, October 2, 2015

 

23. Family Apidae

Common name: Large Carpenter Bees Xylocopa spp.

Nest: Excavated with mandibles in wood and plant stems

Nest Lining: Sawdust (plant stems)

Active: Mid-summer - fall

Size: Large13- 30 mm (0.5 - 1.25 in)

Tongue length: Medium - long

Color: Black with yellow hairs, bumble bee-like

Appearance: Robust, hairy thorax, shiny black abdomen

Pollen Collection: Scopae hind legs

Flight Distance: ~ 1 mile, 1.6 km

Adult bee Wood nest  
xylocopa_adult_x_virginica.jpg xylocopa_nest_x_virginica.jpg  

Copyright © 2007 Jo Ann Poe-McGavin, http://bugguide.net/node/view/136107 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Large Carpenter Bees Xylocopa spp., Jim Thorpe, Carbon County, Pennsylvania, USA, August 12, 2007

Copyright © 2010 T. Gilliam, http://bugguide.net/node/view/375647 , BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Large Carpenter Bees Xylocopa spp.,County, North Carolina, USA, March 6, 2010

 

24. Family Apidae

Common name: Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

Nest: Social, colony

Nest Location: (besides man-made hives)

Tree cavities, tree limbs or branches

Nest Materials: Wax hexagonal cells

Active: Early spring - late fall

Size: Medium, 10-15 mm (0.4 - 0.6 in)

Tongue Length (Worker):  5 - 8 mm (0.2 -0.3 in)

Color: Black with golden hairs

Appearance: Moderately hairy, long abdomen with black or gold stripes, hairy eyes

Pollen Collection: Pollen baskets hind legs (corbiculae)

Flight Distance ~ 2 miles, 3.2 km

Adult bee Carrying pollen Nest
apis_mellifera_adult.jpg apis_mellifera_pollen.jpg honeybee_nest.jpg

Copyright © 2011 metriopte, http://bugguide.net/node/view/602695, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Kennebunk, York County, Maine, USA, June 6, 2011

Copyright © 2010 T. Gilliam, http://bugguide.net/node/view/375647, BugGuide, Iowa State University, Family Apidae, Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Gates, Gates County, North Carolina, USA March 6, 2010

Copyright 2014 Aaron Schusteff, http://bugguide.net/node/view/891837, Feral Honey Bee Swarm,
the Indians, Los Padres National Forest, Monterey County, California, USA, June 15, 2011
 

Dr. Vera Krischik, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, University of Minnesota, krisc001@umn.edu, performs research and extension on landscape, nursery and greenhouse crops, nontarget effects of insecticides, and IPM